Water is the medium of life. When rainwater falls on the earth it collects minerals and goes over the rocks and soil, beginning the hardness of the water. Water hardness refers to the concentration of calcium and magnesium (hydrogen carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride) in water. Their amount is higher in hard water than in soft water.
Hard water is defined as water that does not foam well with soap and produces scum. So while soft water is which produces a good lather with soap and does not produce scum. The main reason water becomes a high concentration of calcium and magnesium in groundwater occurs naturally by the weathering of rocks (limestone, gypsum). It is also caused by the release of chemical and mining waste and the excessive use of lime in the soil in arid areas. Therefore, as manufacturers of water softening plants, we provide these equipment's to lessen the inconveniences brought on by hard water and provide the consumers with the perks of soft water.
What is a water softener?
A water softener and plants are filter devices used to remove salts such as calcium and magnesium that causes water hardness. Water softener mechanism converts the hard water into soft water, it works through a process called ion exchange. It removes Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions from the water. It does not allow water to produce any sort of mineral blocks, scale in-house plumbing, and does not make your health and life cycle effective. During the softening process, iron may also be removed but in most cases magnesium and calcium. If the water hardness is more than 120 mg/L, you just need to install a water softener in your home. It improves water quality, taste, odor, and appearance of water. Moreover, we are trusted by a sizable client base as suppliers because of the perfect product line we manufacture and the cutting-edge design.
Hard water can cause havoc in homes. It forms mineral blocks and scale in your pipes, causing them to block and reduce water pressure. The scale dramatically reduces the lifespan of household appliances such as water heater equipment, dishwasher, coffee maker, and ice machines. Hard water can also lead to corrosion, when one metal melts in contact with another metal, much rather when both are in contact with an electrolyte. The sodium ions will release and replace calcium or magnesium ions and that would be expected to reduce the hardness of the water. Higher the water temperature, more calcium, and magnesium will freeze and solidify as solid clogs inside your hot plumbing pipes. Some conditions indicate the hard water and you must need a water softener immediately:
- The laundry will need extra detergent so it will not look dirty. ≤ 0.2NTU
- Cookwares will come out of your dishwasher with stripes and stains. Filmy scum settles on your shower curtains and does not foam your soap and shampoo.
- The water hardness of your home and surrounding areas exceeds 120 mg/L.
- Hair would become dirty even after washing.
- The water pressure would become low due to building up minerals in pipes.
- Drinking water’s taste would become change.
- Bathing with harsh water makes your skin itchy and dry and makes your hair dull and sticky.
- You might need a large amount of money, time, and energy to reduce the harmful effects of water hardness.
Water Quality hardness is classified into the following categories:
The working mechanism of water softener:
Water softeners remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions, which cause water hardness. These can easily be removed using an ion-exchange process. At very first, a water softener should be installed in your home. When hard water enters the mineral tank, it passes through the bed of spherical resin beads. These beads are usually made of polystyrene and are charged with the sodium ions. Resin beads are anions that carry a negative charge. While calcium and magnesium minerals are cations, means they carry a positive charge. Opposite charges attract one another, and the negative charge of the minerals is attracted to the positive charge of the resin beads. When hard water passes through the beads, it captures the mineral ions and removes them from the water, and at that time sodium ions are supplied from a dissolved sodium chloride salt, also known as brine. Sodium ions are used to coat the exchange medium in softness. The column of the resin beads reduces hard minerals when it passes through the mineral tank and make a soft water supply in your home.
Recharging and Regeneration process of water softener:
Regeneration Process of Water Softening Plant:
The regeneration cycle fills the resin beads with a highly concentrated saline solution, which washes away the hard minerals and expels them from the system. It releases minerals extracted from hard water through the process of ion exchange, so it can continue to soften the freshwater when it arrives. When hard water flows through the water softener, the Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in the water are replaced with sodium ions. This process occurs in the resin bed. For this system to make effective, you need to clear the resin bed of minerals when your water softener is soaked.
How does the water softening plant regeneration process work?
Regeneration is the most complicated part of water softening. Once the resin has trapped all the hard minerals, it must be flushed through a saline solution system to clean it. The water softener during regeneration is flushed for 10 minutes using block salt loaded into the machine. Each cylinder is cleaned one by one to ensure that soft water is available in your home without any interruption. The water is used to regenerate the brine (saline solution) through a water softener and prepare for the next service cycle. The number of litters used for each regeneration is determined by the design, size, and capacity of the water softener.
Recharging Process of water softener:
After softening large amounts of hard water, the exchange medium coated with calcium and magnesium ions must be recharged or regenerated. To recharge the softener with sodium ions, the softener is backflushed again with a saline solution of salt. During the backflush, the brine replaces the calcium and magnesium ions in the exchange medium with the sodium ions from the salt solution. The time between recharging cycles depends on the water hardness and the amount of water used capacity of convertible media to overcome unit volume and hardness.
Water softener designs:
Water softeners for business and commercial/industrial use purposes are engineered to work on one of several flow designs.
Co-current flow system of Water Softener:
It is the most widely used design in industrial-sized water softeners. In this process, the softened water flows down through the cation resin bed and the saline solution also flows downward to complete the regeneration. A similar design requires a less complex master control valve and provides a complete backwash step to extend the bed for more cleaning when treating problematic water supplies such as softness turbidity and sedimentary iron. In a similar method of regeneration, the saline solution first introduced at top of the tank passes through and then displaces the freshwater area, thereby reducing the strength of the incoming brine at the beginning of the regeneration phase. As a result, the bottom layer of the cation resin bed is regenerated only at lower levels of salt.
Water Softening Plant Counter-current flow:
The water enters the tank from the bottom of the mineral tank, where it normally exits. This system transfers the brine to the resin bed, usually closing the resin beads. This means that there are minerals with a low hardness that can initiate regeneration in the regeneration cycle. The brine is less depleted, and the time resin reaches the top of the bed, where the softener does first contact with the hard water. This cycle uses 75% less salt and 65% less water than co-current. This recharge distributes the sodium ions more evenly. In this cycle, the more water enters the house, the most will be charged beads at the bottom of the tank. These water softeners are considered more efficient.
Where should you install A water softener?
It should be installed near the main water supply line of the home. You can install it in your basement, garage, or under the sink. It must be installed close to the power connection to operate the system and pipe for the saline solution from the regeneration cycle.
Additionally, being one of the top exporters of water softeners, Waterman Engineers Australia makes sure that all systems adhere to regulatory standards and provide high productivity and longevity.
Advantages of water softener:
Water softeners are important for several reasons:
- They can increase the life of home appliances.
- It prevents the plumbing pipes and household appliances from minerals blocks.
- Water softener protects water heater elements and kitchen items from soap scum and prevents the formation of minerals.
- A water softener can reduce the stains on glass and soap scum in the sink.
- A water softener can prevent hard water health hazards as people with high blood pressure are at risk for the health effects of drinking water with high salt contents.
- A water softener could be more efficient by not rewashing clothes and utensils and taking long showers to feel fully cleaned, you may save money.